Atomic and nuclear properties of materials:
Scandium (Sc)
QuantityValueUnits ValueUnits
Atomic number 21     
Atomic mass 44.955912(6) g mole-1   
Density 2.99 g cm-3   
Mean excitation energy 216.0 eV   
Minimum ionization 1.522 MeV g-1cm2 4.550 MeV cm-1
Nuclear collision length 77.7 g cm-2 26.01 cm
Nuclear interaction length 123.9 g cm-2 41.45 cm
Pion collision length 103.3 g cm-2 34.55 cm
Pion interaction length 152.9 g cm-2 51.16 cm
Radiation length 16.55 g cm-2 5.535 cm
Critical energy 27.61 MeV (for e-) 26.79 MeV (for e+)
Molière radius 12.71 g cm-2 4.252 cm
Plasma energy 34.05 eV   
Muon critical energy 422. GeV   
For muons, dE/dx = a(E) + b(E) E. Tables of b(E): PS PDF TEXT
Table of muon dE/dx and Range: PS PDF TEXT
Explanation of some entries
Table of isotopes Warning: may not be current
x ray mass attenuation coefficients