Atomic and nuclear properties of materials:
Carbon (graphite) (C )
QuantityValueUnits ValueUnits
Atomic number 6     
Atomic mass 12.0107(8) g mole-1   
Density 2.21 g cm-3   
Mean excitation energy 78.0 eV   
Minimum ionization 1.742 MeV g-1cm2 3.850 MeV cm-1
Nuclear collision length 59.2 g cm-2 26.79 cm
Nuclear interaction length 85.8 g cm-2 38.83 cm
Pion collision length 86.5 g cm-2 39.12 cm
Pion interaction length 117.8 g cm-2 53.30 cm
Radiation length 42.70 g cm-2 19.32 cm
Critical energy 81.74 MeV (for e-) 79.51 MeV (for e+)
Molière radius 11.08 g cm-2 5.012 cm
Plasma energy 30.28 eV   
Muon critical energy 1057. GeV   
Sublimination temperature (@ 1 atm) 4098. K 3825. C
For muons, dE/dx = a(E) + b(E) E. Tables of b(E): PS PDF TEXT
Table of muon dE/dx and Range: PS PDF TEXT
Explanation of some entries
Note: Density may vary 2.09 to 2.23
Table of isotopes Warning: may not be current
x ray mass attenuation coefficients