Atomic and nuclear properties of materials:
Carbon (gem diamond) (C )
QuantityValueUnits ValueUnits
Atomic number 6     
Atomic mass 12.0107(8) g mole-1   
Density 3.52 g cm-3   
Mean excitation energy 78.0 eV   
Minimum ionization 1.725 MeV g-1cm2 6.071 MeV cm-1
Nuclear collision length 59.2 g cm-2 16.82 cm
Nuclear interaction length 85.8 g cm-2 24.38 cm
Pion collision length 86.5 g cm-2 24.56 cm
Pion interaction length 117.8 g cm-2 33.46 cm
Radiation length 42.70 g cm-2 12.13 cm
Critical energy 80.17 MeV (for e-) 77.94 MeV (for e+)
Molière radius 11.29 g cm-2 3.208 cm
Plasma energy 38.21 eV   
Muon critical energy 1044. GeV   
Index of refraction (@ STP, Na D) 2.42     
For muons, dE/dx = a(E) + b(E) E. Tables of b(E): PS PDF TEXT
Table of muon dE/dx and Range: PS PDF TEXT
Explanation of some entries
Note: variety of melting points found, e.g. 4400 C, 3675 C
Table of isotopes Warning: may not be current
x ray mass attenuation coefficients