Atomic and nuclear properties of materials:
Niobium (Nb)
QuantityValueUnits ValueUnits
Atomic number 41     
Atomic mass 92.90638(2) g mole-1   
Density 8.57 g cm-3   
Mean excitation energy 417.0 eV   
Minimum ionization 1.343 MeV g-1cm2 11.51 MeV cm-1
Nuclear collision length 92.3 g cm-2 10.77 cm
Nuclear interaction length 154.3 g cm-2 18.00 cm
Pion collision length 117.0 g cm-2 13.65 cm
Pion interaction length 182.3 g cm-2 21.27 cm
Radiation length 9.92 g cm-2 1.158 cm
Critical energy 14.23 MeV (for e-) 13.77 MeV (for e+)
Molière radius 14.78 g cm-2 1.725 cm
Plasma energy 56.04 eV   
Muon critical energy 241. GeV   
For muons, dE/dx = a(E) + b(E) E. Tables of b(E): PS PDF TEXT
Table of muon dE/dx and Range: PS PDF TEXT
Explanation of some entries
Table of isotopes Warning: may not be current
x ray mass attenuation coefficients