Atomic and nuclear properties of materials:
Gadolinium (Gd)
QuantityValueUnits ValueUnits
Atomic number 64     
Atomic mass 157.25(3) g mole-1   
Density 7.90 g cm-3   
Mean excitation energy 591.0 eV   
Minimum ionization 1.188 MeV g-1cm2 9.383 MeV cm-1
Nuclear collision length 105.8 g cm-2 13.39 cm
Nuclear interaction length 182.4 g cm-2 23.09 cm
Pion collision length 129.6 g cm-2 16.40 cm
Pion interaction length 209.5 g cm-2 26.52 cm
Radiation length 7.48 g cm-2 0.9472 cm
Critical energy 9.34 MeV (for e-) 9.01 MeV (for e+)
Molière radius 17.00 g cm-2 2.151 cm
Plasma energy 51.67 eV   
Muon critical energy 171. GeV   
For muons, dE/dx = a(E) + b(E) E. Tables of b(E): PS PDF TEXT
Table of muon dE/dx and Range: PS PDF TEXT
Explanation of some entries
Table of isotopes Warning: may not be current
x ray mass attenuation coefficients